Closing the water cycle
in Mediterranean tourist facilities

TECHNOLOGIES

Eight categories of innovative technologies together with a monitoring, control and decision support system (DSS) are being integrated and demonstrated in the demonstration site.   Hotel close water cyvle 

172 NM UV Treatment

Responsible partner: FRAUNHOFER ;  partners involved: SICO
(previously called Adsorption process)
ADSORPTION PROCESSES
172 NM UV Treatment
In this Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) hydroxyl-radicals are used to degrade complex and persistent organic molecules which present in the water as contamination.
172nm UV directly attacks different pollutants and it’s able to break down resilient and harmful molecules.

Advantages of 172 NM UV Treatment:
- Automatic operations
- Chemical free process – no need to add hydrogen peroxide, ozone or catalysts
- Adjustable treatment capacity
- No gas exhaust, no noticeable smell

- Disinfection of the treated water as a side-effect
- Independent from the salinity or hardness of the stream
- Independent from UV-absorbance of the feed water

For more information: please check the factsheet.

Electrochemical Ozonation Technology

Responsible partner: FRAUNHOFER ; partners involved: EUT


 Thin channel EUT ozone cell                                                                  Thin channel EUT ozone cell


Oxidative water treatment AOP (Advanced Oxidation Processes) with (electrolytically generated) Ozone.

Electrolytic generation of Ozone:
- Ozone generation within the water-flow is possible
- Efficient for small units up to 10g/h of Ozone
 

Electrocoagulation-flotation Technology

Responsible partner: LEITAT
Electrocoagulation-flotation (EC-EFl) is an electrochemical process used as an alternative to conventional coagulation/flotation processes. In this advanced technology, coagulum agents are generated through electrochemical oxidation of sacrificial metallic plates (e.g. iron or aluminium) used as anodic material (Equation 1). Obtained Fe(II)/Fe(III) (Equation 2) or Al(III) precipitate with hydroxide ions (Equations 3 and 4) generating coagulum particles which destabilize and adsorb water pollutants by surface complexation or electrostatic attraction. Pollutants are removed by sedimentation or electro-flotation producing bubbles of hydrogen gas at cathode surface (Equation 5).

Fe(s) → Fe2+(aq) + 2e                    (1)

Fe2+(aq) → Fe3+(aq) + 1e                 (2)

Fe2+ + 2OH(aq) →Fe(OH)2(s) (3)

Fe3+(aq) + 3OH(aq) →Fe(OH)3(s)        (4)

2H2O(l) + 2e → H2(g) + 2OH-(aq)       (5)

The innovation of EC-EFl lies behind the polarity inversion which performs several times per minute in order to combine the electrocoagulation process with flotation due to hydrogen and oxygen generation in the electrodes (Equation 6 and 7):

H2O(l) → ½ O2(g) + 2H+(aq) + 2e      (6)

H2O(l) + e  → ½ H2(g) + OH-(aq)       (7)
Electrocoagulation - Flotation 
Electrocoagulation-flotation Technology
Advantages of EC-EFI
- It is a compact system
- Minimization of the use of chemicals externally added
- Possibility of water reuse
- Removal of toxic/recalcitrant emergent pollutants
- Possibility to be fed by solar PV panels

For more information: please check the
 factsheet.

Plimmer® Technology

Responsible partner: IDROPAN
Plimmer® is a non-Membrane technology which treats ground/surface water to drinkable standards.
It requires very low pressure and results in low power consumption. It reduces water wastage since water is not pushed into a membrane under high pressure.
This technology has 12 patents in terms of number of electrodes, coating on electrodes and electronics required to handle the process and no chemicals are required for treating water. Electrodes require just 1.6 V charge to operate – providing an option to run on alternative energy sources (e.g. solar). Depending from model of Plimmer® salt reduction vary from 65% to 95%.

The values refer to a conductivity input of 400us. Salt removal percentage decreases with increasing the conductivity of the water inlet and vary with the types of salts dissolved in it.

Plimmer
Plimmer® Technology

Advantages of Plimmer®
- Eco-friendly treatment process: Citric Acid is an organic acid extracted from lemon trees which also provides the electrodes a longer useful life
- Low Carbon Footprint: It ensures 30% less energy required to desalinate water
- Improved Water Footprint: It recovers 80% - 90% of fresh water and
- Automatic Operation

For more information: please check the factsheet.

Smart Air MBR® Technology

Responsible partner: ICRA

Membrane bioreactors (MBR) are a consolidated technology for biological treatment of industrial and municipal wastewater. They guarantee high water quality which has led to a growing demand for this technology, especially in areas where water is scarce and its re-use must be prioritised.


The main MBR disadvantage is membrane fouling. Its minimization can be achieved by supplying air and incorporating backwashing cycles or relaxation modes to clean the membranes, actions that significantly increase operating costs.

Smart Air MBR® is the only product on the market that effectively reduces the energy costs associated with MBR air-scour according to the online monitoring of permeability, and places it in an excellent competitive position.

Advantages of
MBR® technology
- Reductions down to 20% of the air scour required to clean the membranes
- Savings up to 35% of the cost of membrane aeration
- Reliable control of membrane fouling parameters evolution together with biological process parameters
- Optimisation on the frequency of maintenance cleanings
- Stabilisation of the biological nutrient removal, maintaining or improving the quality of the effluent, in comparison with existing control systems
- Extension of membrane life
- Adaptation to any membrane configuration

Solar Photoelectro-Fenton Process

Responsible partner: LEITAT

Solar photoelectro-Fenton (SPEF) process is an advanced electrochemical oxidation process (AEOP) that has been developed for the remediation of acidic wastewaters containing hazardous organics. These process is based on the H2O2 generation from the two electron reduction of O2 at a carbonaceous cathode:

O2(g) + 2H+(aq) + 2e− → H2O2(aq) (1)

and the addition of a small amount of Fe2+ to the treated solution to produce OH and Fe3+ from the classical Fenton’s reaction:

Fe2+(aq) + H2O2(aq) → Fe3+(aq) + •OH(aq) +  + OH(aq) (2)

Since Fe2+ can be regenerated from Fe3+ reduction at the cathode and due to solar radiation (solar photo-Fenton process), Eq. 2, it can be propagated due to the catalytic behaviour of the Fe3+/Fe2+ system.

The most frequently used anodes in the indirect electro-oxidation EF systems are Pt and boron-doped diamond (BDD). The latter is preferable due to its higher oxidation power on organic pollutants. If the electrochemical process is carried out in an undivided cell, apart from the electro-Fenton mechanism, organics can also be destroyed by OH produced at the anode surface from water oxidation (3) in the case of a BDD anode:

BDD + H2O(l) → BDD (OH) + H+(aq) +  e- (3)
Advantages of SPEF technology
- Use of solar light as driving-force of the process as well as for feeding the power supply
- Minimization of the use of chemicals externally
- Water disinfection and reuse
- Removal of toxic/recalcitrant emergent pollutants
 Photoelectro Fenton
Solar Photoelectro-Fenton process

For more information: please check the
 factsheet.

UVOX Technology

Responsible partner: UNESCO-IHE ;  partner involved: UVOX

UVOX 2000 with chemical cleaning mechanism und additional injection of hydrogen peroxide
The UVOX-Redox technology combines the oxidizing effect of ozone with the disinfecting effect of ultraviolet light and initiates meanwhile a highly effective advanced oxidation process (AOP) in one single system.
The swimming pool of hotel Samba has a volume of about 620 m³ of chlorinated pool water. Wapure International GmbH was the first one to install the UVOX-2000 System for the purification of the swimming pool water of Hotel Samba in April 2014. The aim of this project is improving the water quality by meanwhile saving cost of operation.
Depending on the treatment objectives the UVOX 2000 is designed to treat 20 - 70  m³ of chlorinated pool water per hour. 
The UVOX: UV-Oxidation
The UVOX 2000 contains 4 pieces of low pressure UVOX Amalgam Thermospectral 180 Watt Lamps, which irradiate air (with 20% Oxygen) with UV light 185 nm in order to create ozone. This air mixture is injected into the water by means of a venture injection system. In the UVOX reaction chamber, the water with the dissolved ozone is again irradiated with UV (254 nm), whereby two processes are initiated:
  • The Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP): The ozone in the water is converted into the highly reactive OH radicals. In addition hydrogen peroxide will be injected into UVOX reaction chamber by means of a dosing pump.
  • UV-Disinfection: Very effective killing rate (up to 99,99 %) of germs and pathogens is generated by means of UV irradiation.
UVOX uvox web
Objectives in the demeaumed project
Demonstrating the competitive edge of the UVOX water purification system. UVOX improves the water quality and  reduces the costs of operation (saving water, chemicals and energy).
- The UVOX System takes over the disinfecting function of chlorination, resulting in less usage of chlorine and other additional chemicals such as pH correction.
- The UVOX System generates the advanced oxidation of a variety of persistent substances such as body fluids, Nitrites and several DBPs such as: Trihalomethane: (Chloroform, Bromodichloromethane, Dibromochloromethane, Bromoform), Haloacetonitrite: (Dichloroacetronitrile, Bromochloroacetanotile, Dibromoacetonitriel, Trichloracetonitrile), Inorganic: (Free chlorine, Monochloramine, Combined Chlorine.) Misc. BDPs:
(Trichlorinitromethane, Dichlroropropanone, Trichloropropanone, Chloral Hydrate.).

For more information: please check the
 factsheet.

Vertical Ecosystem Technology

Responsible partner: ALCHEMIA ;  partner involved: RADTKE
This technology treats grey water through an indoor vertical constructed plant-based wetland. The underlying principle is the employment of certain plant species in a special sequence for cleansing of the polluted water, grey water in this case; hence, improving the water quality which enables a reuse of the treated water.

The investigated plant species function in symbiosis with rhizosphere specific microorganisms providing intrinsic water cleaning abilities.

For the constructed plant based wetland, a vertical set-up is employed combined with a subsurface horizontal flow. An approach with a green wall unit with three meters length employed for a grey water pollution level of tourist facilities revealed already very promising results.

Vertical Ecosystem Technology

Vertical Ecosystem Technology
Advantages of vertical ecosystem:
- Water savings
- Aesthetic value
- Clean air
- Green image
- Visualizing water cycles

For more information: please check the factsheet.

This project has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement No 619116.